Author guidelines

For Standards see Paper publication on:

Article Preparation Guidelines

  • Authors are expected to attach an electronic covering letter completely mentioning the type of manuscript (e.g, Research article, Review articles, Brief Reports, Case study etc.) Unless invited on a special case, authors cannot classify a particular manuscript as Editorials or Letters to the editor or concise communications.
  • Confirm that each individual named as an author meets the uniform requirements of the Journal of Clinical and Cellular Immunology criteria for authorship.
  • Please make sure that the article submitted for review/publication is not under consideration elsewhere simultaneously.
  • Clearly mention financial support or benefits if any from commercial sources for the work reported in the manuscript, or any other financial interests that any of the authors may have, which could create a potential conflict of interest or the appearance of a conflict of interest with regard to the work.
  • A clear title of the article along with complete details of the author/s (professional/institutional affiliation, educational qualifications and contact information) must be provided in the tile page.
  • Corresponding author should include address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address in the first page of the manuscript and authors must address any conflict of interest with others once the article is published.
  • Number all sheets in succession, including references, tables, and figure legends.
  • Title page is page 1. On the first page, type the running head (short title for top of each page), title (which cannot include any acronyms), names of the authors and their academic degrees, grants or other financial supporters of the study, address for correspondence and reprint requests, and corresponding author’s telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address.

Guidelines for Research Articles

  • Research articles are articles written based on the empirical/secondary data collected using a clearly defined research methodology, where conclusion/s is drawn from the analysis of the data collected.
  • The information must be based on original research that adds to the body of knowledge in Clinical and Cellular Immunology.
  • Article/s should provide a critical description or analysis of the data presented while adding new and rapidly evolving areas in the field.
  • Include an abstract of at least 300 words with 7 to 10 important keywords.
  • The abstract should be divided into Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusion.
  • Research articles must adhere to a format constituting the introduction followed by a brief review of relevant literature, methodology applied (to collect the data), discussion and References, Tables, and Figure Legends.

Review Articles

  • Review articles are written based mostly on secondary data that is falling in line with the theme of the journal. They are brief, yet critical discussions on a specific aspect of the subject concerned. Reviews generally start with the statement of the problem with a brief abstract of 300 words and few key words. Introduction generally brings the issue forward to the readers followed by analytical discussion with the help of necessary tables, graphs, pictures and illustrations wherever necessary. It summarizes the topic with a conclusion. All the statements or observations in the review articles must be based on necessary citations, providing complete reference at the end of the article.


  • Commentaries are opinion articles written mostly by the veteran and experienced writers on a specific development, recent innovation or research findings that fall in line with the theme of the journal. They are very brief articles with the title and abstract that provides the gist of the topic to be discussed, with few key words. It straight away states the problems and provides a thorough analysis with the help of the illustrations, graphs and tables if necessary. It summarizes the topic with a brief conclusion, citing the references at the end.

Case Study

  • Case studies are accepted with a view to add additional information related to the investigative research that advances in the field of Clinical and Cellular Immunology
  • It should add value to the main content/article submitted, by providing key insights about the core area. Cases reports must be brief and follow a clear format such as Cases and Methods Section (That describe the nature of the clinical issue and the methodology adopt to address it), discussion section that analyzes the case and a Conclusion section that sums up the entire case.


  • Editorials are concise commentaries on a currently published article/issue on Clinical and Cellular Immunology. Editorial office may approach for any such works and authors must submit it within three weeks from the date of receiving invitation.

Clinical Images

  • Clinical Images are nothing but photographic depictions of Clinical and Cellular Immunology and it should not exceed more than 5 figures with a description, not exceeding 300 words. Generally no references and citations are required here. If necessary, only three references can be allowed.
  • Do not add separate figure legends to clinical images; the entire clinical image text is the figure legend. Images should be submitted with the manuscript in one of the following formats: .tiff (preferred) or .eps.

Letters to the Editor/Concise Communications

  • Letters to the editor should be limited to commentaries on previous articles published with specific reference to issues and causes related to it.  It should be concise, comprehensive and brief reports of cases or research findings. It does not follow a format such as abstract, subheads, or acknowledgments. It is more a response or the opinion of the reader on a particular article published and should reach the editor within 6 months of article publication.

Acknowledgement: This section includes acknowledgment of people, grant details, funds, etc.

Note: If an author fails to submit his/her work as per the above instructions, they are requested to maintain clear titles namely headings, subheading.


Only published or accepted manuscripts should be included in the reference list. Meetings abstracts, conference talks, or papers that have been submitted but not yet accepted should not be cited. All personal communications should be supported by a letter from the relevant authors.

OMICS uses the numbered citation (citation-sequence) method. References are listed and numbered in the order that they appear in the text. In the text, citations should be indicated by the reference number in brackets. Multiple citations within a single set of brackets should be separated by commas. When there are three or more sequential citations, they should be given as a range. Example: “… now enable biologists to simultaneously monitor the expression of thousands of genes in a single experiment [1,5-7,28]”. Make sure the parts of the manuscript are in the correct order for the relevant journal before ordering the citations. Figure captions and tables should be at the end of the manuscript.

Authors are requested to provide at least one online link for each reference as following (preferably PubMed).

Because all references will be linked electronically as much as possible to the papers they cite, proper formatting of the references is crucial. Please use the following style for the reference list:


Published Papers

  1. Laemmli UK (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227: 680-685.
  2. Brusic V, Rudy G, Honeyman G, Hammer J, Harrison L (1998) Prediction of MHC class II- binding peptides using an evolutionary algorithm and artificial neural network. Bioinformatics 14: 121-130.
  3. Doroshenko V, Airich L, Vitushkina M, Kolokolova A, Livshits V, et al. (2007) YddG from Escherichia coli promotes export of aromatic amino acids. FEMS Microbiol Lett 275: 312-318.

Note: Please list the first five authors and then add “et al.” if there are additional authors.

Electronic Journal Articles Entrez Programming Utilities



  1. Baggot JD (1999) Principles of drug disposition in domestic animals: The basis of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology. (1stedn), W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, London, Toranto.
  2. Zhang Z (2006) Bioinformatics tools for differential analysis of proteomic expression profiling data from clinical samples. Taylor & Francis CRC Press.


  1. Hofmann T (1999) The Cluster-Abstraction Model: unsupervised learning of topic hierarchies from text data. Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence.


These should be used at a minimum and designed as simple as possible. We strongly encourage authors to submit tables as .doc format. Tables are to be typed double-spaced throughout, including headings and footnotes. Each table should be on a separate page, numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and supplied with a heading and a legend. Tables should be self-explanatory without reference to the text. Preferably, the details of the methods used in the experiments should be described in the legend instead of the text. The same data should not be presented in both table and graph form or repeated in the text. Cells can be copied from an Excel spreadsheet and pasted into a word document, but Excel files should not be embedded as objects.

Note: If the submission is in PDF format, the author is requested to retain the same in .doc format in order to aid in completion of process successfully.


The preferred file formats for photographic images are .doc, TIFF and JPEG. If you have created images with separate components on different layers, please send us the Photoshop files.

All images must be at or above intended display size, with the following image resolutions: Line Art 800 dpi, Combination (Line Art + Halftone) 600 dpi, Halftone 300 dpi. See the Image quality specifications chart for details. Image files also must be cropped as close to the actual image as possible.

Use Arabic numerals to designate figures and upper case letters for their parts (Figure 1). Begin each legend with a title and include sufficient description so that the figure is understandable without reading the text of the manuscript. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the text.

Figure legends: These should be typed in numerical order on a separate sheet.

Tables and Equations as Graphics

If equations cannot be encoded in MathML, submit them in TIFF or EPS format as discrete files (i.e., a file containing only the data for one equation). Only when tables cannot be encoded as XML/SGML can they be submitted as graphics. If this method is used, it is critical that the font size in all equations and tables is consistent and legible throughout all submissions.

Supplementary Information

All Supplementary Information (figures, tables and Summary diagram/, etc.) is supplied as a single PDF file, where possible. File size within the permitted limits for Supplementary Information. Images should be a maximum size of 640 x 480 pixels (9 x 6.8 inches at 72 pixels per inch).

Proofs and Reprints

Electronic proofs will be sent as an e-mail attachment to the corresponding author as a PDF file. Page proofs are considered to be the final version of the manuscript and no changes will be made in the manuscript at the proof stage. Authors can freely download the PDF file. Hard copies of the documents are available on request. Please click on the link for the charges.


All works published by OMICS International are under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. This permits anyone to copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited.

The process of sending a new manuscript includes 7 basic steps:

  • Step 1: Select type of the manuscript, fill in the title and abstract in English language.
  • Step 2: File Upload. Here you may upload the Main Document, Title page, files with tables and figures. Remember, that the Main document should be anonymous. If you are submitting a revision, please include only the latest set of files. If you have updated a file, please delete the original version and upload the revised file.
  • Step 3: Attributes. Write and/or choose keywords. (The number of the keywords should not exceed 5 words).
  • Step 4: Authors & Institutions. Enter your co-authors’ information by searching on each of their email addresses below. If they have an existing account, their information can be easily imported to the submission. If necessary, you may add a co-author as a new user in the system by clicking “Create New Author”.
  • Step 5: Reviewers. To suggests a reviewer or request the exclusion of a reviewer, click the Add Reviewer button below and enter their information along with the desired designation.
  • Step 6: Details and Comments: The submitting author may enter or paste a cover letter text into the “Cover Letter” box. The cover letter may also be attached. Answer any remaining questions appropriately.
  • Step 7: Review & Submit. Review the information below for accuracy and make changes as needed. After reviewing the manuscript proofs at the foot of this page, you MUST CLICK ‘SUBMIT’ to complete your submission.

The received manuscripts are reviewed in accordance with Author’s Guidelines by a member of the Editorial Board. Manuscripts that do not comply with the requirements shall be returned to the authors for revision. Manuscripts that meet the requirements shall be admitted for review.


The article submissions shall be provided in Microsoft Word format, as follows:

  • Font: Times New Roman 12;
  • Format of the pages: Page Setup: Top: 2,5 cm, Bottom: 2,5 cm, Left: 2,5 cm, Right: 2,5 cm
  • Line Spacing: 1,5 lines; First Line: 1,5 cm; Paper Size: A4.
  • The main structure of the article shall include:
  • First page;
  • Introduction
  • Main text
  • Conclusions
  • References

Title page (pages)

The Title page/s includes:

Title of the article (it is recommended the title of the article be short (5-10 words) and present the main topic of the study);

Abstract. The abstract of the articles, whose main text is in Bulgarian language should be written in Bulgarian and English. For publications that are all in English language, the abstract should only be in English language. It should be short and clear and concisely contain the following elements:

  • Introduction (“background” of the study) (required);
  • Purpose and objectives of the study (required);
  • Applied methodology (“staging of the research”) (required)
  • Achieved major results (required)
  • Leads (conclusions) (required);
  • Limitations of the research and consequences (if any)
  • Practical implications (if any);
  • Originality/Value (required);

The maximum length of the abstract should not exceed 300 words.

Keywords (specify up to 5 keywords in English).

Article Classification. Authors must categorize their paper as part of the ScholarOne submission process. The category which most closely describes their paper should be selected from the list below:

  • Original Article/Research paper. This category covers papers which report on any type of research undertaken by the author(s). The research may involve the construction or testing of a model or framework, action research, testing of data, market research or surveys, empirical, scientific or clinical research.
  • Reports. These papers describe scientific research, presented on a scientific forum/conference.
  • Discussions/Conceptual paper. These papers will not be based on research but will develop hypotheses. The papers are likely to be discursive and will cover philosophical discussions and comparative studies of others’ work and thinking.
  • Studies. The papers covered by this category shall analyze actual and important issues, the study should be with high scientific value and proven practical value.
  • Editorial Materials/General review. This category covers those papers which provide an overview or historical examination of some concept, technique or phenomenon. The papers are likely to be more descriptive or instructional (“how to” papers) than discursive.

Main Text


The purpose of the introduction is to convince readers that the published research contains novelty and it is applicable. It answers the following questions:

  • What is the main problem?
  • Are there any existing solutions (indicates the level of study the problem at the moment)?
  • What are the best solutions according to the author/s?
  • What is the main limitation of the research?
  • What is expected to be achieved by the author of the research?

The main text is structured into separate sections, distinguished by their titles (headings should be brief, with clear indication of the differences between their hierarchy). The preferred format for writing the main titles is to be bold format and subtitles to be written in italics. font – Times New Roman 12, capitals, left alignment).

The main text should include:

Purpose and objectives of the study. The purpose and objectives of the study should ensure the understanding of the publication’s focus and should justify its structure. After that, authors should specify:

  • What is the significance of the publication?
  • Why the publication is important and original?
  • To whom is the publication designed?

Additionally, can be discussed potential utility of practice, importance for future studies, detailed limitations of the study and others.

Main thesis and hypothesis of the research. Authors’ arguments about their merit are presented.

Applied methodology and methods. The author should indicate the main methods used by him in a separate title. Author should demonstrate that the methodology is robust and appropriate to achieve the objectives. It is expected by the author to focus on the main theme, to point the main stages of his research, to show the used methods and influences that determine the chosen approach by him, to give arguments why he has chosen specific examples and others.

Achieved major results. When presenting the results, it is important that authors focus on the essentials. The publication must contain only the essential facts and those with a wider meaning, without giving many details of every possible statistics. If development is full of statistics, it is possible to prevail over the conclusions and after all the publication to be seen primarily as an enumeration of facts, not as a scientific study. The main thesis of the author must be clearly traceable and steadily established.

When describing the results author should seek answers to the following questions:

  • Do you provide interpretation for each of the submitted results you want?
  • Are the results consistent with what other researchers have found?
  • Are there any differences? Why?
  • Are there any limitations?
  • Does the discussion logically lead the reader to your conclusion?

It is important when presenting the results not to make statements that go beyond what results can acknowledge.


The general rule is that the conclusion should not only contain a summary of the research (it can be found in the abstract). The conclusion should give answers to the set at the beginning of the publication questions and to indicate opportunities for further research. It would be better to reveal how the achieved results will be applied in practice and to identify constraints in this regard. While indicating how this research can be applied and extended in future studies, it is not accepted in the conclusion to introduce new material or state the obvious. In the conclusion it should be emphasized what is different in the research results, what stands out in the design or is unexpected.


Notes or Endnotes should be used only if absolutely necessary and must be identified in the text by consecutive numbers, enclosed in square brackets and listed at the end of the article.

Funding agencies

The funding agencies of the scientific research should be added in Step 6 of the submission process on ScholarOne system.



References to other publications must be in Harvard style and carefully checked for completeness, accuracy and consistency.

The cited authors should be presented in any of the following ways:

  • Surname and year of publish (ex. Adams, 2006)
  • Citing both names of two and year of publish (ex. Adams, Brown, 2006)
  • When there are more than three authors, it is typed the surname of the first author
    and year of publish (ex. Adams et al., 2006)

At the end of the paper a reference list in alphabetical order should be supplied.

For books Surname, Initials (year), Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication.

e.g. Harrow, R. (2005), No Place to Hide, Simon & Schuster, New York, NY.

For book chapters Surname, Initials (year), Chapter title, Editor’s Surname, Initials, Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication, pages.

e.g. Calabrese, F.A. (2005), The early pathways: theory to practice – a continuum, in Stankosky, M. (Ed.), Creating the Discipline of Knowledge Management, Elsevier, New York, NY, pp. 15-20.

For journals Surname, Initials (year), Title of article, Journal Name, volume, number, pages.

e.g. Capizzi, M.T. and Ferguson, R. (2005), Loyalty trends for the twenty-first century, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 22 No. 2, pp. 72-80.

For published
conference proceedings
Surname, Initials (year of publication), Title of paper, in Surname, Initials (Ed.), Title of published proceeding which may include place and date(s) held, Publisher, Place of publication, Page numbers.

e.g. Jakkilinki, R., Georgievski, M. and Sharda, N. (2007), Connecting destinations with an ontology-based e-tourism planner, in Information and communication technologies in tourism 2007 proceedings of the international conference in Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2007, Springer-Verlag, Vienna, pp. 12-32.

For unpublished
conference proceedings
Surname, Initials (year), Title of paper, paper presented at Name of Conference, date of conference, place of conference, available at: URL if freely available on the internet (accessed date).

e.g. Aumueller, D. (2005), Semantic authoring and retrieval within a wiki, paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), 29 May-1 June, Heraklion, Crete, available at: (accessed 20 February 2007).

For working papers Surname, Initials (year), Title of article, working paper [number if available], Institution or organization, Place of organization, date.

e.g. Moizer, P. (2003), How published academic research can inform policy decisions: the case of mandatory rotation of audit appointments, working paper, Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, Leeds, 28 March.

For encyclopedia entries
(with no author or editor)
Title of Encyclopedia (year) Title of entry, volume, edition, Title of Encyclopedia, Publisher, Place of publication, pages.

e.g. Encyclopaedia Britannica (1926) Psychology of culture contact, Vol. 1, 13th ed., Encyclopaedia Britannica, London and New York, NY, pp. 765-71.

(For authored entries please refer to book chapter guidelines above)

For newspaper
articles (authored)
Surname, Initials (year), Article title, Newspaper, date, pages.

e.g. Smith, A. (2008), Money for old rope, Daily News, 21 January, pp. 1, 3-4.

For newspaper
articles (non-authored)
Newspaper (year), Article title, date, pages.

e.g. Daily News (2008), Small change, 2 February, p. 7.

For archival or other unpublished sources Surname, Initials, (year), Title of document, Unpublished Manuscript, collection name, inventory record, name of archive, location of archive.

e.g. Litman, S. (1902), Mechanism & Technique of Commerce, Unpublished Manuscript, Simon Litman Papers, Record series 9/5/29 Box 3, University of Illinois Archives, Urbana-Champaign, IL.

For electronic sources If available online, the full URL should be supplied at the end of the reference, as well as a date that the resource was accessed.

e.g. Castle, B. (2005), Introduction to web services for remote portlets, available at: (accessed 12 November 2007).

Standalone URLs, i.e. without an author or date, should be included either within parentheses within the main text, or preferably set as a note (roman numeral within square brackets within text followed by the full URL address at the end of the paper).

За източници на български език: For each source quoted in Cyrillic – in Bulgarian language should be given the same source, written in the regulations of the transliteration.

e.g. Димитрова, Б., (2003). Аква практики, София, Авангард Прима. Dimitrova, B. 2003. (Akva praktiki, Sofia, Avangard Prima.)

With kind regards
Editorial Executive Board
The-Smart-Innovations for Recreation & Wellness
Global Water Health Community,
Under the management of Global Water Health-Cluster Platform